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Contents of this web Page: HIV
Vaccine is the main subject of this page. The vaccine is important subject but scientists
failed to find a useful solution to them. Here there is no vaccine.
Still hope always go ahead of human. This is too hot subject now.
More Information On This Subject: HIV cure by vaccine -virtual reality- There is no vaccine for HIV. Even no signs to find one in near future.
///INFO BELOW GIVEN ARE TAKEN FROM .wikipedia.org ////
An HIV vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS. As there is no known cure for
AIDS in allopathic medication, the search for a vaccine has become part of the struggle against the disease.
The urgency of the search for a vaccine against HIV stems from the AIDS-related death toll of over 25 million people since 1981. Indeed, in 2002, AIDS became the primary cause of mortality due to an infectious agent in Africa (UNAIDS, 2004).
Alternative medical treatments to a vaccine do exist. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been highly beneficial to many HIV-infected individuals since its introduction in 1996 when the protease inhibitor-based HAART initially became available. HAART allows the stabilisation of the patientís symptoms and viremia, but they do not cure the patient of HIV, nor of the symptoms of AIDS (Martinez-Picardo et al., 2000). And, importantly, HAART does nothing to prevent the spread of HIV through people with undiagnosed HIV infections. Safer sex measures have also proven insufficient to halt the spread of AIDS in the worst affected countries, despite some success in reducing infection rates.
Therefore, an HIV vaccine is generally considered as the most likely, and perhaps the only way by which the AIDS pandemic can be halted. However, after over 20 years of research, HIV-1 remains a difficult target for a vaccine.
WHY IT IS DIFFICULT TO DEVELOP VACCINE AGAINST HIV?
In 1984, after the confirmation of the etiological agent of AIDS by scientists at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Pasteur Institute, the United States Health and Human Services Secretary Margaret Heckler declared that a vaccine would be available within two years (Associated Press, 1984). However, the classical vaccination approaches that have been successful in the control of various viral diseases by priming the adaptive immunity to recognize the viral envelope proteins have failed in the case of HIV-1, as the epitopes of the viral envelope are too variable. Furthermore, the functionally important epitopes of the gp120 protein are masked by
glycosylation, trimerisation and receptor-induced conformational changes making it difficult to block with neutralising antibodies. In February 2003, Vaxgen announced that their AIDSVAX vaccine was a failure in North America as there was not a statistically significant reduction of HIV infection within the study population (Francis et al., 2003). In November 2003, it also failed clinical trials in Thailand for the same reason. These vaccines both targeted gp120 and were specific for the geographical regions
The ineffectiveness of previously developed vaccines primarily stems from two related factors. First, HIV is highly mutable. Because of the virus' ability to rapidly respond to selective pressures imposed by the immune system, the population of virus in an infected individual typically evolves so that it can evade the two major arms of the adaptive immune system; humoral and cellular immunity. Second, HIV isolates are themselves highly variable. HIV can be categorized into multiple clades and subtypes with a high degree of genetic divergence. Therefore, the immune responses raised by any vaccine need to be broad enough to account for this variability. Any vaccine that lacks this breadth is unlikely to be effective.
The typical animal model for vaccine research is the monkey, often the macaque. The monkeys can be infected with SIV or the chimeric SHIV for research purposes. However, the well-proven route of trying to induce neutralizing antibodies by vaccination has stalled because of the great difficulty in stimulating antibodies that neutralise heterologous primary HIV isolates (Poignard et al., 1999). Some vaccines based on the virus envelope have protected chimpanzees or macaques from homologous virus challenge (Berman et al., 1990), but in clinical trials, individuals who were immunised with similar constructs became infected after later exposure to HIV-1
The human body can defend itself against HIV, as work with monoclonal antibodies has proven. That certain individuals can be asymptomatic for decades after infection is encouraging
///INFO ABOVE GIVEN ARE TAKEN FROM .wikipedia.org ////
///Information taken from WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION website ///
WHO HIV Vaccine Initiative
The mission of the WHO-UNAIDS HIV Vaccine Initiative is to promote the development, facilitate evaluation, and address future availability of preventive HIV vaccines, with a focus on the need of developing countries.
Since the start of the epidemic, HIV has infected more than 60 million men, women and children and AIDS has cost the lives of nearly 20 million adults and children. Despite the intense international response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, HIV continues to spread, causing more than 14,000 new infections every day, 95% of these are in the developing world. Today AIDS is the leading cause of death in Africa, and the fourth worldwide. As it is the case with other infectious diseases, a safe, effective and available vaccine is ultimately required to complement and enhance the effectiveness of existing prevention strategies to control the HIV/AIDS pandemic, especially in developing countries.
The urgent need to accelerate the development of an AIDS vaccine prompted the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to join forces in establishing the new HIV Vaccine Initiative (HVI) to boost HIV/AIDS vaccine efforts, taking advantage of their complementary expertise:
within the unique social, cultural and political environment of HIV vaccine research, UNAIDS contributes with its expertise in social and behavioural research, ethical issues, political mobilization and its strong link with community;
WHO brings its experience in vaccinology, especially in product development, vaccination strategies and its established public-private sector partnership in the development and delivery of a wide range of vaccines for public health prevention programmes.
Advocacy, information, education and policy dialogue,
Guidance and coordination of international efforts, developing norms and standards, Promoting development of vaccines appropriate for global use especially in developing countries,
Facilitating the conduct of vaccine trials in developing countries, through training and capacity building,
Addressing issues of future availability and access.
HVI is guided by a WHO-UNAIDS Vaccine Advisory Committee (VAC), which provides an unique forum for coordination, where scientists from different agencies and disciplines, from north to south, can exchange information and identify common grounds for collaboration.
Additional information and other additions to this page will be done soon
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HIV Vaccine-HIV Vaccine there is no vaccine to stop HIV, HIV Vaccine is even not an reality in allopathic .