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  HIV TEST- And all about HIV TEST./
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Contents of this web Page: HIV Test indicates the assurance- or the result - to amke sure whether the patient is HIV infected or not. As we knoe this is important as this will lead to confirmation . HIV Test must be conducted at the earliest stages of infection. P24 Antigen content test is the best possible test to screen the HIV. So the relevance of HIVTest is very important. 

Introduction: HIV Test is very important to screen the HIV infection in body. Some one can test that personally also can test privately. Instead of individual tests - Group HIV tests are used in large numbers in the screening of blood and organ donors and - in an anonymous way- for epidemiological surveillance. This is also very useful as a person don't have to show the identity when test is being conducted. 

Scope of this Subject: HIV test is very relevant to find out HIV infection in human body- Perhaps the only way to ensure an infection is testing for HIV. The scope is thus so high. 

It is nice to see people are gaining good attitude towards HIV testing and volunteering themselves to take part in various mass HIV testing programs in different states. Federal Government conducting such tests in 50 states every quarter. The increased number of people who come for the test under lines the importance of HIV test is rooted deep in human heart. 

Some of them always think that an HIV test was previously often regarded as a threat to civil rights, as well. Yes sometimes, an HIV test may be in the interest of a third person, e.g. testing of an index patient after a small wound or as a part of pregnancy test. HIV Test is so important as that is the only way to ensure you are not infected with HIV.

Important updates On This Subject: HIV tests are now important to be taken more than two ways. First one is a screening test like ELISA test  2. Another test for HIV antibody 3. Test to find Virus- This is ultimate test.  The final one is said as the HIV infection can be diagnosed through the detection of HIV-virus, rather than indirectly through the detection of antibodies. 

Virus detection is only necessary in certain situations and, because of its higher cost, should only be undertaken if indicated. If find negative in that means HIV is cured of the body. 

The HIV culture test is that - Here The HIV Virus isolation in cell cultures is reserved for special cases, as it is demanding, carries a certain risk and therefore requires the use of a specialized laboratory.

The HIV INFECTION text BOOK Says following - "Alternatively, assays for the detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen are available. Although the p24 antigen ELISA has generally been replaced by the more sensitive nucleic acid detection assays, 4th generation antibody screening tests incorporate p24 antigen detection in addition to HIV antibody detection, to shorten the "diagnostic window" period - The detection of viral nucleic acid (i.e. of virus genome) may be achieved by different laboratory techniques. These methods may be used to detect either proviral cDNA in leucocytes (which requires EDTA whole blood samples) or viral RNA in the cell-free compartment (which requires EDTA plasma or EDTA whole blood)."

This approach is a innovation in HIV tests. The purpose of HIV test is to ensure the HIV infection. If HIV is to be ensured means you have to sure that through virus culture tests. 

More Information On This Subject: HIV Test is an important subject as this will lead to confirm that whether one has HIV infection or not. Even medication and cure will come only later stages.

HIV Test And its different aspects are given below-

HIV test is used to detect the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus in serum, saliva, or urine. Such tests may detect HIV antibodies, antigens, or RNA. 


The window period is the time from infection until a HIV test can detect any change. The average window period with antibody tests is 22 days. Antigen testing cuts the window period to approximately 16 days and Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) further reduces this period to 12 days. Performance of medical tests is often described in terms of the following:

Sensitivity-The percentage of the results that will be positive when HIV is present and Specificity-The percentage of the results that will be negative when HIV is not present. 

All diagnostic tests have limitations, and sometimes their use may produce erroneous or questionable results.False positive results are when the test concludes HIV is present when, in fact, the person is not infected.False negative results are when the HIV test concludes HIV is not present, when in fact the person is infected. 

Nonspecific reactions, hypergammaglobulinemia, or the presence of antibodies directed to other infectious agents that may be antigenically similar to HIV can produce false positive results. Autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, can also cause false positive results

HIV antibody tests are specifically designed for routine diagnostic testing of adults; these tests are inexpensive and extremely accurate. Antibody tests may give false negative results during the window period, an interval of three weeks to six months between the time of HIV infection and the production of measurable antibodies to HIV seroconversion. During the window period, an infected person can transmit HIV to others although their HIV infection may not be detectable with an antibody test. 


The ELISA test, or the enzyme immunoassay (EIA), was the first screening test commonly employed for HIV. It has a high sensitivity.

In an ELISA test, a person's serum is diluted 400-fold and applied to a plate to which HIV antigens have been attached. If antibodies to HIV are present in the serum, they may bind to these HIV antigens. The plate is then washed to remove all other components of the serum. A specially prepared secondary antibody — an antibody that binds to human antibodies is then applied to the plate, followed by another wash. ELISA results are reported as a number; the most controversial aspect of this test is determining the cut-off point between a positive and negative result.

In the Western blot procedure, cells that may be HIV-infected are opened and the proteins within are placed into a slab of gel, to which an electrical current is applied. Different proteins will move with different velocities in this field, depending on their size, while their electrical charge is leveled by a surfactant called sodium lauryl sulfate. Once the proteins are well-separated, they are transferred to a membrane and the procedure continues similar to an ELISA. Almost all HIV-infected persons with indeterminate Western-Blot results will develop a positive result when tested in one month; persistently indeterminate results over a period of six months suggests the results are not due to HIV infection. 


Rapid Antibody Tests are qualitative immunoassays intended for use as a point-of-care test to aid in the diagnosis of HIV infection. These tests should be used in conjunction with the clinical status, history, and risk factors of the person being tested. 

OraQuick is an antibody test that provides results in 20 minutes. The blood, plasma or oral fluid is mixed in a vial with developing solution, and the results are read from a sticklike testing device.

Orasure is an HIV test which uses mucosal transudate from the tissues of cheeks and gums. It is an antibody test which first employs ELISA, then Western Blot.

There is also a urine test.It employs both the ELISA and the Western Blot method.

Home Access Express HIV-1 Test is a FDA-approved home test where the patient collects a drop of blood and mails the sample to a laboratory.The results and counseling are obtained over the phone

Yet another HIV test is the p24 antigen test.It detects the presence of the p24 protein of HIV (also known as CA), a major core protein of the virus. Monoclonal antibodies specific to the p24 protein are mixed with the person's blood. Any p24 protein in the person's blood will stick to the monoclonal antibody and enzyme-linked antibody to the monoclonal antibodies to p24 causes a color change if p24 was present in the sample.

The p24 antigen test is not useful for general diagnostics, as it has very low sensitivity and only works during a certain time period after infection before the body produces antibodies to the p24 protein.

Nucleic-acid-based tests amplify and detect a 142-base target sequence located in a highly conserved region of the HIV gag gene. In the United States donated blood has been screened with nucleic-acid-based tests since 2001, shortening the window period between infection and detectability of disease to about 12 days. Since these tests are relatively expensive, the blood is screened by first pooling some 10-20 samples and testing these together; if the pool tests positive, each sample is retested individually. 

The other HIV tests are the RT-PCR test, Quantiplex bDNA or branched DNA test and the CD4 T-cell count.The CD4 T-cell count is not an HIV test, but rather a procedure where the number of CD4 T-cells in the blood is determined.

A CD4 count does not check for the presence of HIV. It is used to monitor immune system function in HIV-positive people. Declining CD4 T-cell counts are considered to be a marker of progression of HIV infection. In HIV-positive people, AIDS is officially diagnosed when the count drops below 200 cells/μL or when certain opportunistic infections occur. This use of a CD4 count as an AIDS criterion was introduced in 1992; the value of 200 was chosen because it corresponded with a greatly increased likelihood of opportunistic infection. Lower CD4 counts in people with AIDS are indicators that prophylaxis against certain types of opportunistic infections should be instituted.

Low CD4 T-cell counts are associated with a variety of conditions, including many viral infections, bacterial infections, parasitic infections, sepsis, tuberculosis, coccidioidomycosis, burns, trauma, intravenous injections of foreign proteins, malnutrition, over-exercising, pregnancy, normal daily variation, psychological stress, and social isolation.

Duo/combined HIV tests are also available which combine antigen and antibody testing, thereby making earlier detection possible. 

According to scientific consensus, the accuracy of serologic testing has been verified by isolation and culture of HIV and by detection of HIV RNA by PCR, which are widely accepted in microbiology. It is generally believed that the combination of ELISA and Western Blot used for the diagnosis of HIV is remarkably accurate, with very low false-positive and -negative rates . 

HIV TEST- WHEN AND WHY?-   

When To TEST? 

It is said that after an infection of HIV- means implementation of HIV virus in body- with in 4 months the antibodies will be produced through the immune system response of the patient. This is not the time to test as this time it will be difficult to get the screening properly.

You can ask your self some questions before testing your self.  

 

Always this is a nice questionnaire to ask to self. The chance of having acquired HIV infection is increased if "Yes" can be answered to one of the following questions:

Test immediately for a screening of HIV if you feel this is applicable.

And let me stat that It is argued that HIV testing  should no longer be accorded any special status-  It has been found that, with the epidemiological shift into groups not formerly considered as  high-risk. So the HIV test is suggested to every one in periodic intervals. If you find time test a screening  once in 3 or 6 months- enough.   

Finally two words- Alex Jenson of OHIO told "After all what is the difference between testing early and late? Once it is infected - it is infected- there is no way to escape. Better know late than early. "

What a pity sarcastic sigh.. 

MORE RESOURCE-ON HIV TESTING 


Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention: 
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/testing.htm

 
World Health Organization (WHO): http://www.who.int with the following web pages: 

Department of Essential Health Technologies: http://www.who.int/eht/en/ 

HIV/AIDS Diagnostics: http://www.who.int/hiv/amds/diagnostics/en/index.html

Other resources on HIV Testing - 
 

Branson BM. Patientennahe Schnelltests für den Nachweis von HIV-Antikörpern. Point-of-Care Rapid Tests for HIV Antibodies. J Lab Med 

Branson BM. Rapid Tests for HIV Antibody.  

Brust S, Duttmann H, Feldner J, Gürtler L, Thorstensson R, Simon F. Shortening of the diagnostic window with a new combined HIV p24 antigen and anti-HIV-1/2/O screening test  

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interpretation and Use of the Western-Blot Assay for Serodiagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Protocols for Confirmation of Reactive Rapid HIV Tests.  3 Jan 1;32(1):94-103. http://amedeo.com/lit.php?id=12514420 

Kassutto S, Johnston MN, Rosenberg ES. Un common- incomplete test- retest 

Giles RE, Perry KR, Parry JV. Simple/rapid test devices for anti-HIV screening:  

HIV Testing Some Images- 

  A Report-HIV Positive- 

HIV Test - Positive Result

HIV Testing

 
HIV Test - Testing is going on

        HIV Rapid Test Kit

  HIV Test -HIV Rapid test Kit


  Another HIV Test Kit

HIV Test - Test Kit 


 National HIV Testing Program

      HIV Test - Testing a normal person


  Taking Blood For Testing .

HIV Test - Blood test

HIV Tests are important to eradicate the devastating disease. You must find the HIV Infection and must kill that before it kills you. The goal of this web page is inculcating idea of HIV test in commoner's brain.  

 - Let us hope for the best- 

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